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It appears that your question is 'Can you replace a capacitor with a larger value capacitor?'. As a simple straight forward answer I would have to say NO. However the answer would depend on what circuit your capacitor is in. For example, let's take a power supply where your capacitor is used to filter the output DC voltage. If your original capacitor is say....100 microFarads, I don't see any problem in replacing it with maybe 120 or 130 microFarads. You probably will not see much if any difference in performance.
Now let's look at another example. Say your using a capacitor of .02 microFarads and it is part of a 555 timer circuit and the value of your capacitor helps to determine the frequency or shape of your output. If you replace it with a larger capacitor you will change the frequency or shape of your output signal. In this case it likely would not work to put in a larger value because it would change what you get for an output.
Now while we are here, let's talk about the voltage ratings on capacitors. This doesn't seem to be discussed much in electronics classes. If your circuit calls for a 10 microFarad capacitor at 35Volts, your replacement must be rated for 35Volts or more. If you put in a capacitor rated at 16Volts, it probably will burn out very quickly. You can use a capacitor of 10 microFarads at 35Volts or 50Volts or 75Volts or most any voltage rating of 35 or larger. In fact, if the capacitor's physical size is not too large to fit into the space, I sometimes upgrade the voltage rating especially when the capacitor has a low rating of around 10 to 16 Volts. This can help to insure that your replacement capacitor will last longer.